Providers’ Attitudes and Experiences With Referral for Legal Abortion in Light of Conscience-Based Objection to Abortion Care in Ghana • John Awoonor-Williams, Ghana Health Service; Peter Baffoe, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Mathias Aboba, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Philip Ayivor, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Harry Nartey, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Beth Felker, Global Doctors for Choice, New York; Dick Van der Tak, Global Doctors for Choice, New York; Adriana A. Biney , University of Ghana.
Exploring Conscientious Objection to Abortion Among Health Providers in the Eastern and Volta Regions, Ghana • John Awoonor-Williams , Ghana Health Service; Peter Baffoe, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Mathias Aboba, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Philip Ayivor, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Harry Nartey, Global Doctors for Choice, Ghana; Beth Felker, Global Doctors for Choice, New York; Dick Van der Tak, Global Doctors for Choice, New York; Adriana A. Biney, University of Ghana.
Childlessness and Its Association With Fertility in India: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis • Adrita Banerjee ; Abhishek Singh, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Association Between Maternal and Child Health Care Services and Postpartum Contraceptive Initiation in India: A Reproductive Calendar Approach • Anjali Bansal .
Do Religious and Nonreligious People Form Fertility Intentions Differently? Evidence From Poland • Christoph Bein , Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI); Monika Mynarska, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University; Anne H. Gauthier, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI).
“Pain in My Heart”: Understanding Perinatal Depression and Engagement in HIV Care in Malawi • Angela Bengtson, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Bradley Gaynes, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Mina Hosseinipour, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Kazione Kulisewa, College of Medicine, Malawi; Anna Kutengule, UNC Project Malawi; Katherine LeMasters , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Samantha Meltzer-Brody, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Dalitso Midiani, Ministry of Health - Malawi; Steve Mphonda, UNC Project Malawi; Brian Pence, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; M. Udedi, Ministry of Health - Malawi.
Family Planning During and After the Ebola Crisis: Evidence From Liberia and Sierra Leone • Kristin Bietsch , Avenir Health; Jessica Williamson, Avenir Health.
Baby Boom or Bust? The Case of Poland’s Rodzina 500+ • Anna Bokun .
Low Fertility in Japan: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach • Mary Brinton, Harvard University; Yun Zhou , Brown University.
Sibling Loss and Fertility Ideals in a High Mortality Context • Kathleen Broussard , University of Texas at Austin; Abigail Weitzman, University of Michigan.
Social Inequality, Human Development and Fertility Pattern in Brazil • Gabrielle Carreira; Viviane Dutra, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ); José Henrique Monteiro da Silva, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Raphael Guimaraes .
Predictors of (DI)Satisfaction in First Heterosexual Intercourse Among Mexican Adolescents: The Role of Own-Approval of Adolescents’ Sexual Activity • Irene Casique , Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
The Effect of Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendor and Client Characteristics on the Quality of Care Received by Injectable Contraceptive Clients • Sara Chace Dwyer , Population Council; Aparna Jain, Population Council; Elizabeth Tobey, Population Council; Salisu Ishaku, Population Council.
Low Fertility in China: A Reassessment • Wei Chen, Renmin University of China; Yuanyuan Duan , Macquarie University; Jinju Liu, Beijing City University.
Can Once-Imbalanced Sex Ratio at Birth Become Balanced? A Case of South Korea • Youngtae Cho , Seoul National University; Woorim Ko, Seoul National University; Hanna Kim, Seoul National University.
Ethnicity Versus Country Context in Shaping Fertility Preferences in West Africa: The Ideal Family Size of the Fulani and Yoruba of Benin and Nigeria • Alli Coritz , University of Southern California.
Ideal Family Size Dynamics in Kigoma, Tanzania • Megan Costa , Arizona State University; Laura Kelly, University of Pennsylvania; Florina I. Serbanescu, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Obstacles to Contraceptive Adoption Among Women in Union in Low Contraceptive Practice Settings in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of the Republic of Benin • Justin Dansou , University of Ibadan.
Contraceptive Use Among First-Trimester Abortion Patients Compared With Postpartum and Community-Dwelling Women in Mexico • Blair G. Darney, Oregon Health & Science University; Evelyn Fuentes-Rivera ; Biani Saavedra, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE); Raffaela Schiavon, Ipas.
Assessing the Use of Abortion Services in Asian Populations in New York City, 2008-2015 • Sheila Desai , Guttmacher Institute.
Measuring Family Planning Provider Bias: A Discrete Choice Experiment Among Burkinabe, Pakistani, and Tanzanian Providers • Maria Dieci ; William H. Dow, University of California, Berkeley; Zachary Wagner, University of California, Berkeley.
Assessing Differences in HIV Testing and Receipt of Result Between Adolescent and Non-Adolescent Women in Uganda • Stephen Ediru , Kyambogo University; Robert Wamala, Makerere University; Betty Kwagala, Makerere University.
The Interlink Between Intimate Partner Violence and Fertility: Partner Asymmetry and Gender Inequality • Sasha Frade , University of the Witwatersrand; Nicole De Wet, University of the Witwatersrand; Clifford O. Odimegwu, University of the Witwatersrand.
Contextual Impact of Societal Instability on Demographic Intentions and Behavior: The Case of Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia • Yuri Frantsuz , Center for Independent Social Research.
The Influence of Religiosity on Abortion Perceptions in Three Zambian Provinces • Meghan Gallagher , Johns Hopkins University; Mary Elizabeth Hughes, Johns Hopkins University; Amy Tsui, Johns Hopkins University.
Does Travel Distance Determine Telemedicine Abortion Interest? • Montana Gill , Emory University; Jessica Geiger, University of Kansas; Julie Burkhart, Trust Women; Roger W. Rochat, Emory University.
Estimating the Incidence of Abortion in Java, Indonesia: A Comparison of 5 Methodologies • Margaret Giorgio ; Budi Utomo, University of Indonesia; Inug Nugroho Soeharno, University of Indonesia; Imma Aryanty, University of Indonesia; Besral Besral, University of Indonesia; Melissa Stillman, Guttmacher Institute; Jesse Philbin, Guttmacher Institute; Gilda Sedgh, Guttmacher Institute.
Educational Expansion and Cesarean Prevalence:
Decomposing the Social Drivers of Change • Sarah Giroux , Cornell University; Kopal Jah, Cornell University.
Women’s Empowerment and Reproductive Autonomy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo • Annie Glover , Tulane University.
Union Formalization and Contraceptive Use in Southern Malawi • Monica J. Grant , University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kirsten Stoebenau, University of Maryland; Isabel Pike, University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Household and Community-Level Determinants of HIV and Sexual Behavior Risk in Rural South Africa: Findings From the Agincourt Health and Sociodemographic Surveillance System and the Ha Nakekela Population-Based Study • Brian Houle , Australian National University; Shao-Tzu Yu, Australian National University; Chodziwadziwa Kabudula, University of the Witwatersrand; Nicole Angotti, American University; Enid Schatz, University of Missouri, Columbia; Sanyu Mojola, Princeton University.
Women’s Perspectives and Experiences Using Postpartum Intrauterine Device in Tanzania • Sarah Huber-Krum, Harvard University; Leigh G. Senderowicz , Harvard University; Kristy Hackett, Harvard University; Erin Pearson, Ipas; Iqbal H. Shah, World Health Organization (WHO); Helen Siril, Management and Development for Health, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Harnessing the Power of Long-Term Entertainment-Education (EE) to Improve Contraceptive Behavior Across Languages, Cultures, and Geographies in a Large African Country: • Fatou Jah , Population Media Center.
Determinants of Reproductive Health Knowledge in Adolescent School-Going Girls, in Kilifi, Kenya • Beth Kangwana , Population Council; Karen Austrian, Population Council.
Effect of Short Inter-Pregnancy Interval on Preeclampsia / Eclampsia in India: Evidence From National Family Health Survey (2015–16) • Ajit Kannaujiya , International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Kaushalendra Kumar, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Abhishek Singh, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Ashish Kumar Upadhyay, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Is Postpartum Contraception Predicted by Methods Used Before Pregnancy? A Longitudinal Exploration of Women’s Postpartum Contraceptive Practices in Kenya • Celia Karp, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Daisy Ruto , Jhpiego; Anne Schuster, University of Southampton; Sara Kennedy; Megan Christofield, Jhpiego; Lindsay Breithaupt, Jhpiego; Michael Muthamia, Jhpiego; Elaine Charurat, Jhpiego.
Prevalence and Correlates of Disagreement Between Intention to Use Postpartum Contraception and Actual Use: A Longitudinal Examination of Women’s Contraceptive Preferences and Postpartum Use in Kenya • Celia Karp , Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Daisy Ruto, Jhpiego; Anne Schuster, University of Southampton; Sara Kennedy; Megan Christofield, Jhpiego; Lindsay Breithaupt, Jhpiego; Michael Muthamia, Jhpiego; Elaine Charurat, Jhpiego.
Predicting Contraception Methods by Partner Discordance in Attitudes towards Female Empowerment • Bonnie Katalenich , Tulane University.
Comparing Five Approaches to Estimating Abortion Incidence in Ghana • Sarah Keogh , Guttmacher Institute; Chelsea B. Polis, Ibis Reproductive Health; Easmon Otupiri, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST); Suzanne Bell, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Rubina Hussain, Guttmacher Institute; Philicia Castillo, Guttmacher Institute; Doris Chiu, Guttmacher Institute; Roderick Larsen-Reindorf, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology; Emmanuel K. Nakua, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
Gender Gap, Intra Household Bargaining, and Sex-Selective Abortion in Albania • Keiti Kondi .
Understanding Associations Between State-Level Policy Factors and Very Short Inter-Pregnancy Intervals in the United States: The Role of County Urban-Rural Status • Renee Kramer , University of Wisconsin–Madison; Deborah Ehrenthal, University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Son Preference Among Asian Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom • Bernice Kuang , University of Reading; Sylvie Dubuc, University of Reading.
Length of Stay After Childbirth in India: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Health Institution • Pradeep Kumar , International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Preeti Dhillon, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Do Family Planning Advice and Maternal Health Care Utilization Change Course in Contraception Usage? A Study Based on Bihar, India • Pradeep Kumar, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Donald Mawkhlieng .
Why Has Early Marriage in India Declined Sharply During 2005–2015: Role of Education Vis-à-Vis Other Factors • Abhishek Kumar, Population Council; Rajib Acharya, Population Council; Priya Nanda, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Arupendra Mozumdar , Population Council.
Examining Women’s Empowerment as a Predictor of Reproductive and Maternal Health Outcomes Among Currently Married Women of Reproductive Age in Myanmar • Amanda Landrian , University of California, Los Angeles; Marta Bornstein, University of California, Los Angeles; May Me Thet, Population Services International Myanmar; Jessica D. Gipson, University of California, Los Angeles; May Sudhinaraset, University of California, San Francisco.
Depends Who’s Asking: Interviewer Effect on Abortion Data in the Sub-Sahara African DHS • Tiziana Leone , London School of Economics; Laura Sochas, London School of Economics; Ernestina E. Coast, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
Assessing the Impact of Potential Policies on Fertility in High-Fertility Countries Using Granger Causality and Bayesian Hierarchical Models • Daphne Liu , University of Washington, Seattle; Adrian Raftery, University of Washington, Seattle.
Fertility Transition and Development Pattern in Districts of India, 2001–2016 • Sanjay Mohanty, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Sayantani Chatterjee .
Addressing Abortion Provider Stigma: Outcomes From Providers Share Workshop Pilots in East Africa and Latin America • Elizabeth Mosley , Emory University; Lisa Martin, University of Michigan-Dearborn; Meghan Seewald, University of Michigan; Jane Hassinger, University of Michigan; Kelly Blanchard, Ibis Reproductive Health; Sarah Baum, Ibis Reproductive Health; Diana Santana, Planned Parenthood Global; Lina Echeverri, Planned Parenthood Global; Jenna Garrett, Planned Parenthood Global; Lisa Harris, University of Michigan.
How Do Women Learn They Are Pregnant? The Introduction of Clinics and Pregnancy Uncertainty in Nepal • Isabel Musse, University of Illinois; Rebecca L. Thornton , University of Illinois.
Ultrasound Testing During Pregnancy and Abortion Among the Urban Poor in Three Cities of India • Dewaram A. Nagdeve , International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Educational Differences in Cohort Fertility Across Sub-National Regions in Europe • Jessica Nisén , Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research; Sebastian Kluesener, Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB); Johan Dahlberg, Stockholm University; Lars Dommermuth, Statistics Norway; Aiva Jasilioniene, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research; Michaela Kreyenfeld, Hertie School of Governance; Trude Lappegard, University of Oslo; Peng Li, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research; Pekka Martikainen, University of Helsinki; Karel Neels, Universiteit Antwerpen; Bernhard Riederer, Wittgenstein Centre (IIASA, VID/ÖAW, WU); Saskia te Riele, Statistics Netherlands; Laura Szabó, Hungarian Demographic Research Institute; Alessandra Trimarchi, Institut National d’Études Démographiques (INED); Francisco Viciana, Institute of Statistics and Cartography of Andalusia; Ben Wilson, Stockholm University; Mikko Myrskyla, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
Toward an Emotional Demography: Emotions and Cross-National Variation in Fertility • Natalie Nitsche , Wittgenstein Centre (IIASA, VID/ÖAW, WU).
The Social Variability of the Nonuse of Condoms Among Married Men in Cameroon • Marcel Nkoma , Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development.
Disparities in Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Boys and Girls Living in an Informal Settlement in Nairobi • Rhoune Ochako, Population Council; Karen Austrian, Population Council; Beth Kangwana , Population Council.
Does Exposure to Family Planning Messages in the Preceding 12-Month Period Predict Current Use of a Modern Family Planning Method? • Olalekan Olagunju ; Erinfolami Temitope, Obafemi Awolowo University.
The Path to Childbearing Is Paved With Mixed Intentions: A Longitudinal Examination of How Fertility Intentions and Contraceptive Use Relate to Pregnancy and Childbearing in Rural Malawi • Hannah Olson , University of Pennsylvania.
Correlates of Induced and Spontaneous Abortion in India: Empirical Evidence From NFHS-4 • Rati Parihar , International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Does Facility-Based Delivery Reduce Neonatal Mortality? Evidence From Rwanda • Jiwon Park , University of Texas at Austin.
Are the Poor Catching Up With the Rich in Utilizing Maternal Health Services? Evidence From India • Sohini Paul , National Council of Applied Economic Research.
Stigma Associated With Medication Abortion Provision Among Pharmacists: An Assessment of Pharmacists’ Knowledge and Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India • Joanna Percher ; Malvika Saxena, Public Health Foundation India; Beth Phillips, University of California, San Francisco; Pravesh Dwivedi, Institute of Women's Studies, University of Lucknow; Aradhana Srivastava, Public Health Institute; Nadia Diamond-Smith, University of California, San Francisco.
Trends in the Method and Gestational Age of Abortion in High-Income Countries • Anna Popinchalk , Guttmacher Institute; Gilda Sedgh, Guttmacher Institute.
Estimates of Adolescent Fertility in Developing Countries: An Innovative Use of DHS Birth Histories • Thomas W. Pullum , ICF International; Trevor N. Croft, Macro International Inc.; Kerry MacQuarrie, The DHS Program (Avenir Health).
Premarital Pregnancies in China: Trends and Determinants • Yue Qian , University of British Columbia; Yongai Jin, Renmin University of China.
Siblings’ Fertility Peer Effects: An Extended Family Causal Estimate • Federica Querin , Princeton University.
Common Family Planning Stereotypes and Postpartum Family Planning Uptake in Indonesia • Siti Nurul Quomariyah, Jhpiego; Anne Schuster , University of Southampton; Lindsay Breithaupt, Jhpiego; Elaine Charurat, Jhpiego; Megan Christofield, Jhpiego; Celia Karp, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Sara Kennedy.
Educational Expectations, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and the Odds of Early Sexual Initiation Among Latino Adolescents • Kahli Romano .
“Abortion Culture,” Demographic Crisis, and Neotraditionalism in Russia: A Mixed-Methods Approach • Leslie Root , University of California, Berkeley.
Effect of a Comprehensive Package of Interventions on the Provision of Immediate Post-Pregnancy Family Planning Services: Preliminary Analysis of a PPFP Program in Kenya • Daisy Ruto , Jhpiego; Elaine Charurat, Jhpiego; Sara Kennedy; Michael Muthamia, Jhpiego.
Individual Social Network Factors Across Disparate Relationships: Social Norms and Their Association With Adolescent Pregnancy in Rural Honduras • Holly Shakya , University of California, San Diego; John R. Weeks, San Diego State University; Nicholas Christakis, Harvard University.
Social Disadvantage and Population Control in India • Kanika Sharma ; Aashish Gupta, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania.
Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Bisexual Men and Mapping the Vulnerability of Their Female Partners • Nidhi Sharma , International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Assessing the Quality of Client-Provider Interaction in Family Planning Services through Mystery Client Approach in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India • Ankita Shukla , International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Accuracy of Patient Perceptions of Maternity Facility Quality and the Choice of Providers • Zeina Siam , Harvard University; Margaret McConnell, Harvard School of Public Health; Jessica Cohen.
Conflict Intensity and Service Utilization Patterns for Maternal Care: Evidence From a Pseudo-Longitudinal Analysis in the Palestinian Territories • Zeina Siam , Harvard University; Tiziana Leone, London School of Economics.
Sex Composition of Children and Future Fertility Intentions • Aradhana Singh .
Post Sterilization Regret in India: New Evidence on Trends, Patterns, and Determinants • Abhishek Singh , International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).
Contraceptive Use Dynamics Across Sociodemographic Nexus in Uttar Pradesh: A Method-Specific Analysis of Calendar Data • Anjali Singh , Banaras Hindu University; Ujjaval Srivastava, Banaras Hindu University; Neeraj Narayan, Banaras Hindu University.
Barriers to Maternal Healthcare Access in LMICs: How Pushing the Analytical Envelope Could Have Important Implications for Equity • Laura Sochas , London School of Economics.
Causal Relationship Between Women’s Fertility Desires and Contraceptive Use: An Investigation Through Urban Health Initiative, Uttar Pradesh, India • Ujjaval Srivastava , Banaras Hindu University; Anjali Singh, Banaras Hindu University; Kaushalendra K. Singh, Banaras Hindu University.
Inequalities in Unsatisfied Demand for Modern Contraception Within and Across Low- and Middle-Income Countries • Sarah Staveteig, U.S. Department of State; Tesfayi Gebreselassie; Kathryn Kampa , Tulane University.
Patients’ Assessments of Family Planning Health Care in the United States: What Are Key Factors That Facilitate or Hinder Equitable Care? • Lindsay Stevens , Princeton University.
The Role of States in Changing Disparities in the Age-Specific Risk of First Birth • Amanda Stevenson , University of Colorado Boulder; Joshua Sanders, University of Colorado Boulder.
Women’s Experiences in Obtaining and Using Medical Abortion Pills From Drug Sellers in Lagos, Nigeria • Melissa Stillman , Guttmacher Institute; Onikepe Owolabi, Guttmacher Institute; Olalekan Olagunju; Ann M. Moore, Guttmacher Institute; Amanda Berry, Guttmacher Institute; Akinrinola Bankole, Guttmacher Institute; Akanni I. Akinyemi, Harvard School of Public Health; Adesegun O. Fatusi, Obafemi Awolowo University; Erinfolami Temitope, Obafemi Awolowo University.
Revisiting the Decoupling of Marriage and Childbearing: Couples’ Fertility Intentions and Unwed Mothers’ Relationship Trajectories • J. Bart Stykes , Sam Houston State University.
Ethnic Differentials in Effects of First Marriage and Marital Fertility on Below-Replacement Fertility in Singapore, 1980–2015: A Multistate Lifetable Analysis • Keita Suga .
The Influences of Sexual and Reproductive Health Service-Seeking Behavior Among Women at Late Reproductive Ages (40–49) in Rural China • Xiaoming Sun , Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunication; Yu Sun, University of North Georgia.
Sterilisation in the Colombian Armed Conflict • Signe Svallfors , Stockholm University.
Determinants of Nonprotection During First Sex Among Secondary School Students in Cameroon’s Capital City, Yaounde • Teke Takwa ; Teke Atuh, Université de Yaoundé I; Chobike Safiatou, Université de Yaoundé I; Unda Ngwende, Université de Yaoundé I.
Assisted Reproductive Technology Use in the United States: A Demographic Assessment • Katherine Tierney , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Yong Cai, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Timing of Initiating the HPV Vaccine Series • Kim-Phuong Truong-Vu , University of Colorado Boulder.
“If the Big Fish Are Doing It Then Why Not Me Down Here?”: A Qualitative Assessment of Informal Fee Payments and Health Care Provider Motivation in Kenya • Katherine Tumlinson , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Margaret Gichane, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Sian Curtis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Son Preference, Differential Stopping Behavior, and Fertility Outcomes • Sindhu Vasireddy , University of Hawaii at Manoa.
The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Contraception Utilization in Ecuador: A Regression Discontinuity Approach • Maria Carolina Velasco Molina , Brown University; Omar Galarraga, Brown University; Stavroula Chrysanthopoulou, Brown University.
Childlessness and Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1986–2016 • Florianne Verkroost , Nuffield College, University of Oxford; Christiaan W. S. Monden, University of Oxford.
Assisted Reproductive Technology and the Educational Gradient of Fertility: Evidence From Denmark • Sander Wagner, École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique; Anna Barbuscia , University of Oxford.
Implementing an Immediate Postpartum LARC Program Before the State Medicaid Policy Change: A Texas Hospital’s Experience • Cristina Wallace Huff, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; Kristine Hopkins , University of Texas at Austin; Joseph E. Potter, University of Texas at Austin.
Fertility Decisions Among Ethnic Minority Groups in China • Man Xu .
Domestic Violence and Its Impact on Couple's Fertility Intention in India • Akhilesh Yadav , Banaras Hindu University; Minakshi Vishwakarma, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS).